Intentional Variants

Spelling and Grammar Changes


During the early centuries of the Common Era the spelling of many Greek words had not become standardized. The literati who revived a study of Classical Greek considered it necessary to improve the Hellenistic (or Koine, "common") Greek of the New Testament.

It is said that he (Tatian) was bold enough to alter some of the Apostle's expressions as though trying to rectify their phraseology.

Eusebius, The History of the Church, 4.29.6.


Rev. 1:4

The book of Revelation is notorious for its grammatically defective Greek. In this verse, the author follows a preposition which takes the genitive case with the article in the nominative case. There are a few different ways in which scribes attempted to alleviate the syntax.

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